What is the forwarding?

Forwarding is a service of: dispatching or receiving a shipment, organizing the whole or part of transportation process, performing other actions related to operations on shipment (e.g transport consulting, additional assurance, transshipment/handling, storage, packaging, distribution, logistics service etc.). Forwarding services are based on forwarding contract. Forwarder’s rights and obligations are governed by the Civil Code (§795-804) and by the Polish General Forwarding Terms (OPWS).

What is a difference between freighter and forwarder?

The difference is the range of activities and responsibilities. Freighter’s main obligation is a cargo carriage by adapted transport mean on paericular route. Forwarder’s main obligation is to organize the whole or part of transport process. It shows, that forwarder are also obligated to perform other action related to transport process. Freighter is responsible for cargo on the way from place of loading to place of discharge; forwarder is responsible for careful selection of freighter and will take responsibility in case of any damage on the good.

Documents related to the transport of goods

For the cargo must be attached documents of cargo type, quantity, place of origin, customs status etc. Generally there are: waybills, commercial invoices, packing lists, warehouse and customs documents.

Cennik, gdzie go znajdę?

Firma ATL nie posiada jednolitego cennika. Każdy klient traktowany jest przez nas indywidualnie i w taki sposób przygotowywane są wyceny. Jeśli chcecie Państwo poznać koszt usługi prosimy o kontakt z naszym działem handlowym, który przygotuje ofertę cenową.

Waybills in different means of transport

Road transport – CMR CMR is an international road waybill determined on the basis of the CMR Convention. Specifies the relationship between a sender, carrier and recipient. CMR performs functions of information, instruction sheet, possess and evidence. Based on the CMR Convention, international road waybill should be issued in three original copies. Each party of the transport process should be in possession of one original copy

Maritime transport – B/L (Bill of Lading) Bill of lading is a confirmation of loading charge on board as well as commitment to release a load to authorized recipient at the port of destination. Specifies the legal relationship between a liner agent and recipient. Bill of lading is also an evidence of carriage contract.

Air transport – AWB (Air Waybill) AWB indicates which air liner agent will transport a charge. AWB can be issued as the MAWB (Manifest Air Waybill) or as the HAWB (House Air Waybill). In case of a few orders to the same place, forwarder can issue MAWB and indicate themselve as a shipper and his parter at the port of destination as a recipient. MAWB goes together with a HAWBs, which are a waybills with the customer as a shipper and the final recipient of the goods. HAWB receive directly the partner at the port of destination and inform the final recipients about a delivery of the good.

Damage of the charge

Despite of every effort by the forwarder and the carrier, transported loads can be damaged. To redress, this is necessary to issue a protocol about the circumstances and size of the damage. Protocol generally is issued by the forwarder or carrier and it is a basis to claim for compensation. A special type of damage protocol is the DMC Protocol which is used in air transport. This is issued by airline handling agent and is a basis to put a claim for damages in 14 days from shipment reception. To this apply must be accompanied by the original of AWB and the goods value confirmation.

Road forwarding – the most important definition

Forwarder – person who is working for a fee, on his own behalf but on behalf of the client or on behalf of the client, to send or receive goods, organizing the whole or part of the goods translocation process and other activities related to attendance and displacement
CMR – road waybill
TIR Carnet - warranty document which allows transport of customs goods used in international road transport in the transit procedure
ATA Carnet - warranty document which allows transport and report the goods to the time customs clearance. This is mainly used for the transportation of goods for fairs, exhibitions, etc.
ATP Contract – international transport of perishable foodstuffs (ATP) contract signed in Geneva in 1970. Main target of this contract is improvement of transport quality.
AETR Contract – contract concerned to international transport trucker teams, signed in Geneva in 1970. Main target of AETR contract is road safety improvement by regulations in the road drivers employment terms

CARGO insurance

Each carrier who undertakes goods to tranport should have civil liability carrier insurance OCP. During transport of goods can occur a sitatuions that does not arise from the fault of the carrier and then, the insurer may refuse to pay compensation of arising losses. To avoid problem like this, customer who order a transport for a carriage should make a decission about optionally additional CARGO insurance for situations which are not included in OCP insurance. Additional CARGO insurance is obligatory in individual contracts signed based on the INCOTERMS 2000.


eneral Polish Forwarding Terms have been developed by Polska Izba Spedycji i Logistyki (35 Counsil resolution from date 11.10.2002) and have been approved by the Prezydium KIG 59/15/2003 resolution from date 23.04.2003. They apply in relations between forwarder and his customer if they are included in contract. OPWS 2002 are not related to forwarding of money, stocks, documents, jewelry and other valuable goods.

CMR Convention

In road transport a very important piece of legislation which allows international transport is the Convention on the Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Road (CMR) signed in Geneva in 1956. Poland ratified it in 1962. CMR Convention was published in the Annex to the Official Gazette No. 49, item. 238 of 14.09.1962. European countries that acceded to the Convention as follow: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, France, Greece, Spain, Netherlands, Ireland, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Latvia, Moldova, Germany, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland, Sweden, Hungary,United Kingdom, Italy, In 1999 around 7000 polish companies have been egaged in international transport, with more than 23.000 licensed trucks engaged in transport of goods used every day the CMR Convention rules.

Delivery terms - INCOTERMS 2000

Incoterms 2000 are international trade terms governing the rules of sale, relate to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods. Incoterms share the costs, risk and responsibility between seller and buyer and reflect the mean od contract transport and concern to the transport of goods, settlementof export and import responsibilities, who pays for what and who carries the risk for the condition of goods in each module of transport process.. Incoterms 2000 are grouped in 4 categories: E, F, C, D.

What is customs clearance?

Customs clearance – steps leading to a change in customs status of goods, usually associated with the payment of customs duty, excise duty or VAT. Report goods to customs clearance or give the appropriate destination customs can only representative employee (with the customs authority) of the Customs Agency, forwardimg Company or Carrier under the authority from the customer or interested person who is directly egaged in international trade. Declaration as a direct representative of the customer, can only be done by a person referred to in art. 4, paragraph 1 of the Community Customs Code - if it is a customs agent, or if on behalf of the customer represent a authorized employee of the company who is written in the customs agents list.


It is a set of actions like: planning, implementing and controlling the flow and storage of goods, services and related information from the place of manufacture to the point of consumption in order to meet customer requirements. Most of the forwarding concerns “general cargo”, but logistics regulates also restrictions in transport due to the nature of the goods, e.g. the dual-use goods, dangerous goods (DGR called for air and ADR for road transport), live animals, dead body, perishable goods which requires special treatment.